An abbreviated list of some of the most influential scholarly papers in the field of flow calibration.
An Uncertainty Analysis For a Positive Displacement Liquid Flow Calibrator Using the Water Draw Technique
Wesley B. England
U.S. Army Primary Standards Laboratory
The late Wes England (of the U.S. Army Primary Standards Laboratory) presents perhaps the first detailed study of the uncertainty of the “fluid draw” process used to certify a liquid flow calibrator. The follow-up paper was to quantitatively compare to two methods of fluid draw (volumetric and gravimetric), but was never completed.
The Characterization of a Piston Displacement-Type Flowmeter Calibration Facility and the Calibration and Use of Pulsed Output Type Flowmeters
Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology
Volume 97, Number 5, September-October 1992
Author: G. E. Mattingly
Perhaps the cornerstone study of flow calibrators, Dr. Mattingly’s paper fully explains all of the critical terms and relationships used to make these flow standards function. This has been the keystone reference for all studies in the field of flow calibration for 25 years.
NCSLI Paper 2010—Accounting for the Impact of Thermal Instability in the Liquid Comprising the Connecting Volume of a Piston Displacement type Volumetric Flow Rate Standard
A technical paper produced as a part of the Joint Army and Air Force Metrology Research & Development Project CCG-576
Authors: Jeremy Latsko AFMETCAL and James Winchester AEDC Arnold AFB
This study of the thermal effects on flow calibrators was performed by Jeremy Latsko and the late James Winchester (both of the U.S. Air Force) significantly changed the design of modern flow calibrators. The dynamic thermal deviations where carefully measured and quantified (with the help of CompuFlow Solutions). As a result, new flow standards designs changed the way the flow is generated and moved around the system to minimize these thermal errors.
NCSLI Paper 2012—Army Primary Standards Laboratory Uncertainty Analysis for a 50 GPM Positive Displacement Piston Prover
Speaker/Author: Wesley B. England
Team Leader, Liquid & Gas Flow Laboratory
U.S. Army Primary Standards Laboratory (APSL)
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
This paper is perhaps the definitive study of uncertainty on positive displacement flow calibrators. Written by the late Wes England (of the U.S. Army Primary Standards Laboratory), it looks at the typical design of the mechanical and electronic subsystems and generates a detailed analysis of even the more difficult terms in the uncertainty analysis of flow provers and flow calibrators.